Eyes

Discuss the medical implications and realities of close quarters combat as it relates to human anatomy and physiology.

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Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 8:07 pm

Dave Lorenson wrote:From: Sifu Dave
To: All
2/22/01

Target: Opthalm(o) Eye

Effective Strikes: Basically anything

Patho-physiology: I am not sure how much to say about detail here, because there are so many structures that can be damaged, but don't really need to be addressed. Basically when the eye is struck it causes great pain and can result in minor to severe damage and unconsciousness. The cornea (clear covering over the center) is easily irritated and can be torn resulting in blindness which can be repaired in many cases. The sclera (white part of the globe around the clear cornea) is of course also sensitive but will not necessarily bring about visual disturbance directly, it does however come about indirectly by increased opthalmic (eye) pressure or because of tears and blinking. The retina (lining on the inside of the globe that is responsible for translating the light signal into nerve impulses) is sensitive to a number of things including very bright light such as laser, looking at the sun, watching a welding torch and blows to the globe itself. When an eye is struck with enough force or if the head has been jarred with force at all the retina is susceptible to dislodging and tearing. When this happens the only hope for restored vision where the retina was damaged is surgical repair (this is not always possible) or in some cases where the damage is not great, natural repair of the body. Sometimes blood pockets behind the retina and the globe itself and will separate the retina causing this loss of vision. When we strike the lids they of course are susceptible to tearing, bleeding and pain. The eyes are so important to us that it makes sense that they can be an effective target. It is not necessary to cause blindness to end a fight with a strike to the eye. However, just so you are aware, blindness can occur even with blows that are not that severe. The eye can be dislodged from it's socket with finger jabs and if this happens there is no human method to restore vision in the eye. We're not very good at repairing nerves at this point and the Opthalmic Nerve is especially difficult.
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Re: Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 8:15 pm

San Soo Sifu wrote:From: San Soo Sifu
To: Sifu Dave
2/22/01

Dave Lorenson,
A few questions:

When I stick my thumb in the inside corner of my opponent's eye (closest to the nose) and stick my thumb deep to the first digit on the thumb, "scoop" my thumb under, around, and behind the eye, tearing against the six small muscles that hold an eye in place and give it movement (at least I think the number is six) and pop the eye out of the far corner of the eye socket (nearest to the temple)...

1. What are the name of those six small muscles (in order from nose corner to temple corner)?

2. What is the name for the "optical cord" that connects the eye to the brain?

3. What causes more damage...squashing the eyeball in my hand like a grape, or yanking on the "optical cord" and ripping it from the brain?
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Re: Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:05 pm

Dave Lorenson wrote:From: Sifu Dave
To: San Soo Sifu
2/28/01

San Soo Sifu, your description of the damage sounds like Master Dennis A. Scheller, himself.

So you want details, eh? Well, details it shall be...

Actually, the globe of the eye is controlled by 6 different muscles. They are:

1. Inferior Oblique muscle of eyeball
2. Superior Oblique muscle of eyeball
3. Inferior Rectus muscle of eyeball
4. Lateral Rectus muscle of eyeball
5. Medial Rectus muscle of eyeball
6. Superior Rectus muscle of eyeball

If you think that your thumbs will damage the eyelids as well as the eyeball itself, then you may involve even more than 6 muscles in each eye.

The nerve which will be torn is called the optic nerve. This joins each eyeball in the back and comes together midbrain before separating again and ending in the occipital lobe where sight is processed.

If you perform the move as you described the opponent will not be able to have sight restored by medical means. (This means that the Lord is the only one who can restore this loss).

There is a muscle called the sphincter muscle of the eye that controls the pupil. This muscle of course will be a non-entity in the loss of the eye, but was not included in this scenario because we were discussing the muscles that control the eye ball itself.

If you feel the need to squash the eyeball after its rude removal, then of course satisfy yourself, but it makes absolutely no difference. The optic nerve can be irreversible damaged even if the eyeball is not completely removed from its socket.

In closing, it seems important to me that anyone trained in destruction should be aware of the completeness of the damage they may inflict so that proper judgement can be made. I'm not saying we should hold back in combat, only that reason should be used. We as humans are more than just killing machines, at least I hope we are.

By the way, I should probably mention that the optic artery and nerve are bundled close to the optic nerve, so that when the globe is removed from the socket (or even partially) bleeding will take place -- probably a lot of it.
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Re: Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:12 pm

Dennis Kirby wrote:From: MasterBear1
To: Sifu Dave
3/7/01

Hey Dave:
The discussion about the eyeball was very good, but I have one question. Is it not true that the proper insertion of the thumb into the eye at the corner will jellify the eye in the socket rather that pop it out? I know that it takes tremembous blunt force to the front of the forehead area to pop the eye out of the socket, a friend did this in a motorcycle accident (he was wearing a helmet, that saved his bacon). His head slammed into the roof edge of the car, broke both cheek bones, and popped out one eye, and broke the heck out of the helmet. Amazingly, he did not lose vision in the eye, must be some flexibility in the optic nerve.
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Re: Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:22 pm

Dave Lorenson wrote:From: Sifu Dave
To: MasterBear1
3/8/01

Good question. Yes, this can happen, if so it is called a rupture of the globe. Of course there are several different ruptures that can occur. Those in the anterior (front) portion of the eye involve the cornea (clear shield in front of the pupil) and/or the structures immediately posterior (behind) to it as far as the posterior chamber membrane behind the lens itself. The aqueous humor (thin fluid in the front parts of the eye) is constantly replaced by the body, therefore in an injury where leakage occurs, vision may be restored once the pressure again equalizes. The vitreous humor (thick jelly like substance) in the posterior portion of the eye behind the lens is not replaceable. Thus, if too much of this leaks out during a rupture vision will not be restored.

Usually what happens is either as you say, or if the thumbs are dug in and brought back behind the eye then the eye will be dislocated and vision will be lost.

It is truly amazing to me what happened to your friend. Though I am not a trauma specialist (so I haven't seen everything), I have never even heard of an eye being dislodged from the socket and vision remaining. Perhaps the optic nerve has more flexibility than I suspected. It is also possible that the nature of his facial fractures especially in the orbital bones moved the position of the structures enough that the eye did not move very far forward and was still displaced from the socket. This is a great story and I'm glad that he can still see. Often with severe injury like this even the blood vessels and muscles will be detached from the eye and as you know this causes a problem for the eye.
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Re: Eyes

Postby San Soo Sifu » Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:27 pm

Dennis Kirby wrote:From: MasterBear1
To: Sifu Dave
3/9/01

Thanks for the information, you might be right about the friend with the popped eye, as I remember his cheekbones were broken and they ended up wiring the whole facial structure together, but I can tell you the bones were depressed backwards about 1/4 to 1/2 inch even after the repairs. Of course, since I'm an old fart, that was about 30 years ago, things were cruder medically then.
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